Ajamoda consists of dried, aromatic fruits of Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. V. M.
ex Benth. (Fam. Umbelliferae); an annual herb cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka; collected by thrashing plants on a mat and dried in shade
or in drying sheds.
Sanskrit : Dipyaka
Assamese : Bonjamani, Bonajain, Yamani, Ajowan
Bengali : Randhuni, Banyamani
English : —
Gujrati : Bodi Ajamo, Ajamo
Hindi : Ajmuda, Ajmod
Kannada : Oma, Ajavana, Omakki
Kashmiri : Fakhazur, Banjuan
Malayalam : Ayamodakum, Omam
Marathi : Ajmoda, Oova
Oriya : Banajuani
Punjabi : Valjawain, Ajmod
Tamil : Omam
Telugu : Naranji vamu
Urdu : Ajmod
Drug consists of small, ovoid fruit; bulk colour yellowish brown, mainly occur as
entire cremocarps with pedicel attached or detached and bifid stylopod, free ends curved
sometimes occurs as separate mericarps; cremocarps glabrous, ovoid to conical, about
1.5-3.0 mm long and 1.2-2.8 mm wide, yellow to yellowish green; separated mericarps
broadly ovoid, more or less curved, dorsal surface convex with five equally distinct,
longitudinal primary ridges; at the summit curved stylopodiurn, commissural surface
flat, showing darker and light coloured longitudinal bands, former representing the
position of vittae and vascular bundles ; odour; aromatic; taste, slightly bitter giving a
sensation of warmth to tongue.
Transverse section of fruit shows mericarps with four large vittae on dorsal
surface, two on commissural surface and four primary ridges on dorsal surface; 3-5
secondary oil canals present under each primary ridge and also between ridges;
3carpophore present on commissural surface; epicarp cells with thin striated cuticle, outer
walls drawn into papillae; stomata, anomocytic type upto 35 µ in diameter; mesocarp
consists of polygonal paranchyma,: with thickened and lignified cells, measuring
30-62-95µ. in diameter with oval to round pits; collateral vascular bundles lie beneath
epicarp; tracheids 25-203-388 µ in length with spiral, scalariform or reticulate
thickenings; xylem parenchyma lignified, elongated with elliptical pits, measuring
52-118-176 by 13-30-44 µ large secondary vittac towards endosperm measure upto
123µ in width and towards periphery the smallest vittae measuring 184µ in diameter.
<strong>Powder</strong>-Shows moderately thick-walled cell of epicarp exhibiting characteristic
striations and occasional presence of stoma, fragments of trichomes and glandular hairs,
reticulate parenchymatous cells of mesocarp, fragments of yellowish-brown vittae;
fragments of endosperm thick-walled polygonal cells containing aleurone grain and
micro rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.
<strong>IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH</strong>
Foreign matter (Including fStalk) Not more than 5%,
Total Ash Not more than 14%,
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 14%,
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 14%
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3%
Volatile oil Not less than 2 % v/w
<strong>CONSTITUENTS</strong> – Essential oil and fixed oil.
<strong>PROPERTIES AND ACTION</strong>
Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Vidahi, Kaphavatajit, Rucik¤t, Kamijit, Sulaghna
<strong>IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS</strong> – Ajamodarka, Ajamodadi Curna.
<strong>THERAPEUTIC USES -</strong> Gulma, Aruci, Ëdhm¡na, Hikk¡, Chardi K¤mi Roga, á£la
<strong>DOSE</strong> – 1-3 g of the drug in powder form.
<strong>Note</strong>: Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC) Sprague Syn. Carum roxburghianum Benth.
Hook.f. is the common market substitute.